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The Japanese garden is designed to be a faithful representation of nature and to impart a sense of simple, unspoiled beauty. Its style therefore contrasts with that of a Western garden, which relies on shaping nature into a kind of geometrical beauty. There are three main styles of Japanese garden; Tsukiyama, Karesansui, and Chaniwa.
A 'Tsukiyama' - style garden is arranged to show nature in miniature, with hills, ponds and streams.

The Karesansui style of garden developed in the Muromachi Era as a representation of Zen spiritualism. In this style, sand or gravel is used to represent rivers or the sea. It is charactarized by its force and simplicity.

The Chaniwa is the garden adjacent to a ceremonial teahouse. This style of garden avoids any suggestion of showiness and strives for the utmost simplicity and naturalness. The main features of such a garden are shown here: